A complex system can be thought of as having 2 properties:
- Interdependence between components
- Nonlinear outputs - meaning that doubling the inputs doesn’t translate to doubling outputs
- ex. Taking twice the amount of medication doesn’t make you feel twice as good; doubling employees doesn’t result in twice as much production; 2 weeks on vacation are not twice as good as 1 week on vacation.
In environments like this, simple causal associations are misplaced.