Psychology is a microcosm of sociology.
- In this way, it follows a fractal-pattern
- the phenomenon that related opposite things will tend to be grouped together
- ex. [Up, car, sky, down]. Even though they are opposed, they are considered part of the same structure (see structuralism), and thus considered as closely related
- this may have pervasive cultural influence, as people begin to think of the structure as binary (ie. If I'm not strong, then I must be weak)
Implicit and Explicit rules of the game
There are many different games we play throughout life. For each game, there are the rules we are "told" and are known by everyone. But also, there are the rules that are more scarce, and when their knowledge is possessed by people, it gives them an edge.
Take a job interview for example. There are shared rules that we all know: make up a resume, give that resume to different companies to express interest in trading time/effort for money, and so on. We accomplish this by following a more granular set of rules, such as when to email the interviewer after an interview has taken place, or how to sign off on emails.
In addition to these common rules that we all share, there are more arcane rules that only the astute will have uncovered. It is well known in psychology that first impressions matter a great deal. This effectively becomes a rule in the game. If we are able to give off a better first impression, then we will heighten our chances of winning the game. The thing is, this part of the game effectively goes unmentioned.
When evaluating the value of a single set of info (eg. A set of 10 high-value baseball cards), adding in 3 junk cards actually diminishes the value of the set. In other words, people put less value on it. However, when comparing 2 sets, one with the 10 cards, and the other with the 13, the second set is perceived as more valuable. This indicates that when left without anything to compare values to, the average is used (I'm 13 card set, value of each card drops, even though overall value rises)
It's a fundamental law. the more responsibility that is split among people the less that each person feels responsible for its outcome.
When two things are compared, more (even if its broken dishes) will add value. However if there is no comparison (like a gift), items of cheap value added to the main gift will diminish its value
A good mood is a signal that things are generally going well, the environment is safe, and it is all right to let one’s guard down. A bad mood indicates that things are not going very well, there may be a threat, and vigilance is required. Cognitive ease is both a cause and a consequence of a pleasant feeling.
students “quietly exempt themselves” (and their friends and acquaintances) from the conclusions of experiments that surprise them.