Knowledge says something useful and true about the world

Knowledge is independent of its physical instantiation. That is, I can speak some truth, I can write it down, the knowledge can exist as some electrons within a computer, and so on. So, knowledge is not dependent on any particular instantiation.

Knowledge also has the property that when it is instantiated, it tends to remain so. Consider a scientist writing a speculative paper. Once that speculation turns out to be considered factual, that same paper remains in existence, and that is the paper that will be cited and studied by other scientists and that is the paper upon which we will build other knowledge.

All knowledge is derived conjecturally, and comes from within at first. It is conceived of to solve problems, not to summarize data.

“as our island of knowledge grows, so does the shore of our ignorance.”

"Second Order Knowledge" is knowledge about what you know and knowledge about what you don’t know